What are “I3C & DIM” compounds ?

Cruciferous I3C and DIM

Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) and Diindolylmethane (DIM), are “indole compounds” derived from Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cabbage, both I3C, and DIM, exhibit great potential for the prevention and treatment of numerous forms of Estrogen enhanced Cancers, current research validates their use for the prevention and integrative treatment of breast, cervical, ovarian and prostate cancer. 

I3C & DIM Research Review

Chemopreventive properties of indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethane and other constituents of cardamom against carcinogenesis.

Oxidative stress results from an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell’s own antioxidant defenses that in part lead to numerous carcinogenesis. Several phytochemicals, derived from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices, have demonstrated excellent chemopreventive properties against carcinogenesis by regulating the redox status of the cells during oxidative stress. I3C (indole-3-carbinol) and DIM (diindolylmethane) are the phytochemicals that are found in all types of cruciferous vegetables and demonstrated exceptional anti-cancer effects against hormone responsive cancers like breast, prostate and ovarian cancers. Novel analogs of I3C were designed to enhance the overall efficacy, particularly with respect to the therapeutic activity and oral bioavailability and that results in several patent applications on symptoms associated with endometriosis, vaginal neoplasia, cervical dysplasia and mastalgia. Likewise, DIM and its derivatives are patented for treatment and prevention of leiomyomas, HPV infection, respiratory syncytial virus, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis and anti-proliferative actions. On the other hand, phytochemicals in cardamom have not been explored in great details but limonene and cineole demonstrate promising effects against carcinogenesis. Thus studies with selected phytochemicals of cardamom and bioavailability research might lead to many patent applications. This review is focused on the patents generated on the effects of I3C, DIM and selected phytochemicals of cardamom on carcinogenesis.

Anticancer properties of indole compounds: mechanism of apoptosis induction and role in chemotherapy.

Indole compounds, obtained from cruciferous vegetables, have been investigated for their putative anti-cancer properties. Studies with indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimeric product, 3, 3′ diindolylmethane (DIM), have indicated efficacy of these compounds against a number of human cancers. Available as well as emerging data suggests that these compounds act on a number of cellular signaling pathways leading to their observed biological effects. Such pleiotropic effects of these compounds are also considered crucial for their chemosensitization activity wherein they help reduce the toxicity and resistance against conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. These observations have major clinical implications especially in chemotherapy. Through this review, we have attempted to update current understanding on the state of anti-cancer research involving indole compounds. We have also summarized the available literature on modulatory effects of indoles on molecular targets such as survivin, uPA/uPAR and signaling pathways such as the NF-kappaB pathway, which are important for the apoptosis-inducing and chemosensitizing properties of these compounds.

Inhibition of fatty acid synthase and Sp1 expression by 3,3′-diindolylmethane in human breast cancer cells.

The putative cancer preventive agent 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) is formed in the acidic environment of the stomach following consumption of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is present in vegetables of the Brassica genus. We have recently shown that the transcription factor Sp1 is involved in the regulation of both proliferation and de novo lipogenesis in cancer cells. Here we show that DIM inhibits the proliferation of 3 human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SKBr-3, and concomitantly inhibits the expression of Sp1 and fatty acid synthase (FAS). There were no DIM-related effects on the proliferation or expression of Sp1 or FAS in the nontumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. These results suggest that inhibition of Sp1 and/or FAS expression could contribute to the anticancer properties of the dietary indoles.


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